Brihadaranyaka Upanishad recommends three stages of ‘Sadhana’ for Self Realization, which are ‘Shravana’ (hearing about the truth again and again), ‘Manana’ (reflection about the truth in mind), and ‘Nididhyasana’ (Meditation upon the truth).
The process can be summarized as to remove ignorance and give clarity about ‘true nature’ of ‘Individual self’ (Jiva), Scriptures and Guru are required, hence Vedanta is to be studied systematically, where the ‘Truth’ is told by a Guru that you are the ‘pure consciousness’ (Tat Tvam Asi) (Chandogya Upanishad 6.8.7).
Three Problems – Three Methods
According to Vedanta (BU 2.4), the problem in the first stage to realization is ‘Pramana Asambhavana,’ which means ‘purports to teach about the Brahman or about some other entity.’ This is the doubt about the Pramana itself. The Pramana here is Upanishad. This removes by ‘hearing’ and systematic study of Texts (Shravanam).
The problem in the next stage is ‘Prameya Asambhavana,.’ which means ‘doubt whether Brahman and Jiva are identical or not’ in other words, ‘doubt about the subject matter.’ This is resolved by systematic Vedantic inquiry till it comes to clarity and intellect get convinced (Manana).
The problem in the final stage is ‘Viparita Bhavana‘ which means wrong notions such as ‘the universe is real, the difference between Brahman and Jiva is real’ in other words ‘opposite tendency of behaving as if we are the body and mind’ which are contrary to the teachings of the Upanishads. This problem is resolved by ‘Nididhyasana,’ which involves continuous dwelling on the ‘Truth’ till realization dawns and manifested in life. In the words of Swami Vivekananda, tell yourself again and again till it is entered into very veins and tingles in every drop of blood with ‘I am that infinite’.
Thank You, Ravi Kumar